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Isolation and characterization of antioxidant protein fractions from melinjo (Gnetum gnemon) seeds.

January 7, 2012

J Agric Food Chem. 2011 May 25;59(10):5648-56. Epub 2011 Apr 27.

Isolation and characterization of antioxidant protein fractions from melinjo (Gnetum gnemon) seeds.

Siswoyo TA, Mardiana E, Lee KO, Hoshokawa K.


Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Jember, Jember, Indonesia.


The protein from the seeds of melinjo ( Gnetum gnemon ) was purified using a precipitation method and ion exchange chromatographic techniques to identify the potent antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities. Two antioxidant protein fractions were isolated from G. gnemon seed with molecular weights of approximately 30 kDa (Gg-AOPI) and 12 kDa (Gg-AOPII) by SDS-PAGE. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of Gg-AOPII is Gly-Asn-Gly-Lys-Ala-Thr-Val-Ala-Ile-Leu-Val-Lys-Glu-Lys-Val-Glu-Tyr-Gly-Glu-Glu, and the result of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) analysis showed that they were distinct from each other; no protein in database matching was found to both Gg-AOPI and Gg-AOPII. The antioxidant or free radical scavenging activities of Gg-AOPs were investigated by employing in vitro assay systems including the inhibition of linoleic acid autoxidation, scavenging effect on α,α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl free radical (DPPH), 2,2′-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS), reducing power, chelating abilities of metal ions Cu(2+) and Fe(2+), and protections against hydroxyl radical-mediated DNA damages. The result showed that two protein fractions exhibited significant (p < 0.05) antioxidant activities against free radicals such as DPPH, ABTS, and superoxide anion and showed activities similar to those of glutathione (G-SH) and BHT in a linoleic acid emulsion assay system. Moreover, Gg-AOPI and Gg-AOPII also exhibited notable reducing power and strong chelating effect on Fe(2+) and protected hydroxyl radical induced oxidative DNA damage. The data obtained by the in vitro systems obviously established the antioxidant potency of Gg-AOPs.


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